p-synephrine

P-Synephrine: Uses, Dosage, and Recommendations

Almost 90% of the U.S population tried to lose weight in the past year... but barely half of them achieved their goals. Weight loss is a concern, and weight loss supplementation is gaining interest because of that. Today, we talk about p-synephrine, one of the best supplements to aid weight loss!

P-Synephrine

P-Synephrine is a naturally occuring alkaloid mainly found in citrus fruits.

Citrum Aurantium, commnonly known as Seville orange, or Bitter orange, is the main natural source of p-synephrine

Because of its properties and potential benefits, p-synephrine is widely used in the food, medical, and health industries.

It can be used in clinical treatments of bronchial asthma, hypotension, collapse, and shock; to improve metabolism; and in treatments of digestive issues (source)

bitter orange p-synephrine

Metabolism of p-synephrine

P-Synephrine, together with its cousins octapamine and ephedrine, form what we know as “alkaloid metabolism”.

The production of these substances start with the amino acids L-Phenyalanine and L-Tyrosine. You can obtain these amino acids through diet, and from there use them for different purposes.

p-synephrine metabolism

The structure of p-synephrine is similar to that of octopamine and ephedrine. However, the slight changes in the structure makes p-synephrine a much more selective molecule than octopamine and ephedrine.

While octopamine and ephedrine show severe side effects, p-synephrine is much more secure and effective at aiding fat oxidation and weight loss.

Mechanisms of Action of P-Synephrine

P-Synephrine is an interesting molecule. Due to its properties and potential benefits, p-synephrine can be used for different purposes. But how does P-Synephrine do what it does?

The main pathway of action is through adregenic receptors. P-Synephrine shows a very high specificity for adrenergic receptors beta-3 (source).

When this receptor is activated by P-Synephrine, your body slightly increases thermogenesis, lypolisis, and controls glucose and cholesterol metabolism (source.

adrenergic receptors p-synephrine

Compared to its cousins ephedrine and octopamine, the specificity of p-synephrine towards beta-3 adrenegenic receptors is huge.

Ephedrine and octopamine, on the other hand, also affect beta-3, but other alpha adrenergic receptors that may cause potential side effects (source)

Uses of P-Synephrine

P-synephrine is safe and effective... but what is it used for? What are the benefits of using p-synephrine?

P-Synephrine for Weight Loss

Weight loss is a general concern in our society. Almost everyone has tried to lose weight at least once... and a lot of them failed on the journey.

P-synephrine, however, could help you lose weight. Due to its interaction with beta-3 adrenergic receptors, p-synephrine can slightly increase your metabolic rate by 65 kcal/day (source

Not only that, but it also activates fat lypolisis. Acute ingestion of p-synephrine results in higher fat oxidation during the training session (source)

p-synephrine for weight loss

P-Synephrine for Mental Focus

The alkaloid pathways by which p-synephrine is produced also includes some of the most potent neutrotransmitters in our body; dopamine and norepinephrine.

Thes neurotransmitters have shown to modulate mental focus and cognitive performance (source)

Both dopamine and norepinephrine exert similar actions in our brain. Both molecules function in parallel to facilitate learning and maintain the states required for normal cognitive processes.

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However, evidence on P-Synephrine improving mental focus is still quite scarce.

Even though dopamine and norepinephrine are potent modulators of mental focus and attention, we are still missing quite a lot of studies to leave this field more conclusive.

P-Synephrine improves Sports Performance

P-Synephrine is not only used to lose weight, but also to improve sports performance and give it and extra punch to your trainings.

Evidence shows p-synephrine to increase resistance exercise repetition and volume load (source). These effects are seen by combining caffeine with p-synephrine.

P-synephrine shows to increase fat oxidation during exercise. As aerobic sports rely solely on fat oxidation and efficiency of such, the use of P-Synephrine may act as a performance enhancer.

However, the effect of p-synephrine improving sports performance in anaerobic sports is still quite unclear (study)

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Dosage and Safety Use

P-synephrine has shown to be safe in the recommended doses of 1-3 mg/kg (source).

The safety profile of p-synephrine has been put in doubt a lot in the past years. For instance, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) banned the use of p-synephrine in food supplements.

However, this was only because of the high doses of p-synephrine used, causing increased heart rate, raised blood pressure, and increased the risk of heart attacks and strokes (source)

P-synephrine is safe and effective at losing weight and increasing fat oxidation when used in the recommended doses of 1-3 mg/kg. Start in the lower range, and increase when needed.

Because it increases fat oxidation, it is recommended to take p-synephrine 30-60’ before exercise or other activity involving high calorie expenditure (source)

Conclusion

P-Synephrine is a food supplement used to aim weight loss, sports performance, and mental focus.

Taking 1-3 mg/kg before physical activity has shown to be safe and effective.

As more research is published, we sure will know more and more of the benefits and wide uses of p-synephrine.

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